Renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon disorder. It may be caused by:
- Hypercoaguable state: clotting disorders
- Dehydration (mostly in infants)
- Estrogen use
- Scar formation with pressure on the renal vein
- Trauma (to the back or abdomen)
In adults, the most common cause is nephrotic syndrome. In infants, the most common cause is dehydration.
Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney.
Exams and Tests
An exam may not reveal the specific problem. However, it may indicate nephrotic syndrome or other causes of renal vein thrombosis.
- Duplex Doppler exam of the renal veins
- X-ray of the kidney veins (venography)
Renal vein thrombosis most often gets better over time without lasting damage to the kidneys.
Complications may include:
- Acute renal failure (especially if thrombosis occurs in a dehydrated child)
- End stage renal disease
- Blood clot moves to the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
- Formation of new blood clots
In most cases, there is no specific way to prevent renal vein thrombosis. Keeping enough fluids in the body may help reduce risk.
Aspirin is sometimes used to prevent renal vein thrombosis in people who have had a kidney transplant. Blood thinners such as warfarin may be recommended for some people with chronic kidney disease.
Symptoms may include:
The treatment helps to prevent the formation of new clots and reduces the risk of clot traveling to other locations in the body (embolization).
You may get medicines that prevent blood clotting (anticoagulants). You may be told to rest in bed or cut down on activity for a short time.
If sudden kidney failure develops, you may need dialysis for a short period.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of renal vein thrombosis.
If you have experienced renal vein thrombosis, call your provider if you have:
- Decrease in urine output
- Breathing problems
- Other new symptoms
Dubose TD, Santos RM. Vascular disorders of the kidney In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 125.
Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Taal MW, Yu ASL, et al, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 35.