Orchitis may be caused by an infection. Many types of bacteria and viruses can cause this condition.
The most common virus that causes orchitis is mumps. It most often occurs in boys after puberty. Orchitis most often develops 4 to 6 days after the mumps begins.
Orchitis may also occur along with infections of the prostate or epididymis.
Risk factors for sexually transmitted orchitis include:
- High-risk sexual behaviors
- Multiple sexual partners
- Personal history of gonorrhea or another STI
- Sexual partner with a diagnosed STI
Risk factors for orchitis not due to an STI include:
Orchitis is swelling (inflammation) of one or both of the testicles.
Exams and Tests
A physical exam may show:
- Enlarged or tender prostate gland
- Tender and enlarged lymph nodes in the groin (inguinal) area on the affected side
- Tender and enlarged testicle on the affected side
- Redness or tenderness of scrotum
Tests may include:
Getting the right diagnosis and treatment for orchitis caused by bacteria can most often allow the testicle to recover normally.
You will need further testing to rule out testicular cancer if the testicle does not completely return to normal after treatment.
Mumps orchitis cannot be treated, and the outcome can vary. Men who have had mumps orchitis can become sterile.
Some boys who get orchitis caused by mumps will have shrinking of the testicles (testicular atrophy).
Orchitis may also cause infertility.
Other potential complications include:
- Chronic epididymitis
- Death of testicle tissue (testicular infarction)
- Fistula on the skin of the scrotum (cutaneous scrotal fistula)
- Scrotal abscess
Acute pain in the scrotum or testicles can be caused by twisting of the testicular blood vessels (torsion). This is a medical emergency that requires immediate surgery.
A swollen testicle with little or no pain may be a sign of testicular cancer. If this is the case, you should have a testicular ultrasound.
Things you can do to prevent the problem include:
- Get vaccinated against mumps.
- Practice safer sex behaviors to decrease your risk for STIs.
Treatment may include:
- Antibiotics, if the infection is caused by bacteria. (In the case of gonorrhea or chlamydia, sexual partners must also be treated.)
- Anti-inflammatory medicines.
- Pain medicines.
- Bed rest with the scrotum elevated and ice packs applied to the area.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
See your health care provider for an exam if you have testicle problems.
Get emergency medical help if you have sudden pain in the testicle.
Mason WH. Mumps. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 248.
McGowan CC, Krieger J. Prostatitis, epididymitis, and orchitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 112.
Nickel JC. Inflammatory and pain conditions of the male genitourinary tract: prostatitis and related pain conditions, orchitis, and epididymitis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 13.